Urology is one of the most competitive and highly sought surgical specialties for physicians, with new urologists comprising less than 1.5% of medical-school graduates each year.
Urological surgeons, or urologists, undergo a post-graduate surgical training period for a minimum of five years, of which 12 months must be completed in general surgery and 36 months must be completed in clinical urology. The remaining 12 months are spent in general surgery, urology, or other clinical disciplines relevant to urology. Upon successful completion of a residency program, many urologists choose to undergo further advanced training in a subspecialty area of expertise through a fellowship lasting an additional 12 to 36 months.
Subspecialties may include: urological surgery, urological oncology and urologic oncological surgery, endourology and endourologic surgery, urogynecology and urogynecologic surgery, reconstructive urological surgery (a form of reconstructive surgery), minimally invasive urological surgery, pediatric urology and pediatric urological surgery (including adolescent urology, the treatment of premature or delayed puberty, and the treatment of congenital urological syndromes, malformations, and deformations), transplant urology (the field of transplant medicine and surgery concerned with transplantation of organs such as the kidneys, bladder tissue, ureters, and, recently penises), voiding dysfunction, neurourology, and androurology and sexual medicine.